White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease

White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer’s is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer’s risk. Results of these analyses […]

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Microbial regulation of microRNA expression in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex

There is growing evidence for a role of the gut microbiome in shaping behaviour relevant to many psychiatric and neurological disorders. Preclinical studies using germ-free (GF) animals have been essential in contributing to our current understanding of the potential importance of the host microbiome for neurodevelopment and behaviour. In particular, it has been repeatedly demonstrated […]

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Juice Is Terrible for Children

Quick: think back to childhood (if you’ve reached the scary clown you’ve gone too far). What did your parents or guardians give you to keep you quiet? If you’re anything like most parents, it was juice. But here’s the thing: juice is bad for you. According to pediatric professors Erika R. Cheng, Lauren G. Fiechtner and Aaron E. Carroll, […]

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Dietary carbohydrates: role of quality and quantity in chronic disease

Would reduction in total carbohydrate intake (currently typically 45-65% of total energy) help control body weight in general population and susceptible subgroups? What is the role of a low carbohydrate diet in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and in management of type 1 diabetes? Does ketosis induced by severe carbohydrate […]

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Exercise for cognitive brain health in aging

We systematically appraised randomized controlled trials proposing exercise to influence cognition in older adults to (1) assess the methodologic quality using Cochrane criteria; (2) describe various exercise dose measures and assess their relationship with improved cognitive performance; and (3) identify consistent patterns of reported effects on cognition. There was overall good methodologic quality in all […]

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Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so […]

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Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Component of Cannabis, Inhibits Cue-Induced Heroin Seeking and Normalizes Discrete Mesolimbic Neuronal Disturbances

There remains debate regarding the impact of cannabis on neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we examined the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis, on heroin self-administration and drug-seeking behavior using an experimental rat model. CBD (5–20 mg/kg) did not alter stable intake of heroin self-administration, extinction behavior, or drug seeking induced by a heroin […]

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Supra-Additive Effects of Combining Fat and Carbohydrate on Food Reward

Fat and carbohydrate interact to potentiate reward independently of liking. This is reflected in supra-additive responses in the striatum during food valuation. Participants are able to estimate energy density from fat, but not carbohydrate. Accurate estimation of energy density recruits a prefrontal-fusiform gyrus circuit Post-ingestive signals conveying information about the nutritive properties of food are […]

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Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Cognitive Dysfunction: Does Your Metabolic Profile Affect Your Brain?

Dementia and type 2 diabetes are both characterized by long prodromal phases, challenging the study of potential risk factors and their temporal relation. The progressive relation among metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance (IR), and dementia has recently been questioned, wherefore the aim of this study was to assess the potential association among these precursors of type […]

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