Cancer stem cells can take cover and evade chemotherapy by hiding in fatty tissue, according to new research.
A team of scientists in the US looked at the behaviour of leukaemia stem cells in mice and found they were building their own hideout in the fat – a bolt-hole that then increased their resistance to chemo treatments.
Adipose tissue (AT) has previously been identified as an extra-medullary reservoir for normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and may promote tumor development. Here, we show that a subpopulation of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) can utilize gonadal adipose tissue (GAT) as a niche to support their metabolism and evade chemotherapy. In a mouse model of blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adipose-resident LSCs exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype and induce lipolysis in GAT.
GAT lipolysis fuels fatty acid oxidation in LSCs, especially within a subpopulation expressing the fatty acid transporter CD36. CD36(+) LSCs have unique metabolic properties, are strikingly enriched in AT, and are protected from chemotherapy by the GAT microenvironment. CD36 also marks a fraction of human blast crisis CML and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells with similar biological properties. These findings suggest striking interplay between leukemic cells and AT to create a unique microenvironment that supports the metabolic demands and survival of a distinct LSC subpopulation.
Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety conditions with impairment in social life. Cannabidiol (CBD), one major non-psychotomimetic compound of the cannabis sativa plant, has shown anxiolytic effects both in humans and in animals. This preliminary study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test (SPST) on healthy control (HC) patients and treatment-naïve SAD patients who received a single dose of CBD or placebo. A total of 24 never-treated patients with SAD were allocated to receive either CBD (600 mg; n=12) or placebo (placebo; n=12) in a double-blind randomized design 1 h and a half before the test.
The same number of HC (n=12) performed the SPST without receiving any medication. Each volunteer participated in only one experimental session in a double-blind procedure. Subjective ratings on the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) and Negative Self-Statement scale (SSPS-N) and physiological measures (blood pressure, heart rate, and skin conductance) were measured at six different time points during the SPST. The results were submitted to a repeated-measures analysis of variance.
Pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alert in their anticipatory speech. The placebo group presented higher anxiety, cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert levels when compared with the control group as assessed with the VAMS.
The SSPS-N scores evidenced significant increases during the testing of placebo group that was almost abolished in the CBD group. No significant differences were observed between CBD and HC in SSPS-N scores or in the cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert factors of VAMS. The increase in anxiety induced by the SPST on subjects with SAD was reduced with the use of CBD, resulting in a similar response as the HC.
For years, athletes have known the benefits of high intensity interval training, which involves short, hard bursts of effort followed by periods of recovery.
Marathon runners, for example, who race at a steady pace over a long distance – 26.2 miles – can boost their fitness by doing regular workouts in training that include fast intervals of 400 or 800 meters, then recovering by jogging for the same distance or sometimes less.
But more recently, studies have shown that high intensity interval training is not just for athletes. Most people can benefit from them, including those with serious diseases, who should check with their doctors first. And intervals can be incorporated into many forms of exercise besides running, such as bicycling, rowing, stair climbing, calisthenics, even walking.
High intensity interval training can even help people with heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and Parkinson’s disease. The short, intense bouts of exercise improve a person’s ability to use oxygen and insulin, make arteries more elastic and reduce body fat. And the benefits can occur quickly. Researchers found that just one session of high intensity intervals lowered blood glucose, and after two weeks, exercisers who did intervals improved oxygen uptake and, therefore, their cardiovascular fitness.
An analysis of how carbohydrate and fat intake affects blood lipid profiles in more than 100,000 individuals living in 19 low- to high-income countries suggests that the message to lower dietary saturated fats to lower cholesterol and thus decrease risk of cardiovascular disease may be misleading. More:
When you eat something loaded with sugar, your taste buds, your gut and your brain all take notice. This activation of your reward system is not unlike how bodies process addictive substances such as alcohol or nicotine — an overload of sugar spikes dopamine levels and leaves you craving more. Nicole Avena explains why sweets and treats should be enjoyed in moderation.
Breakfast in America is pretty sweet—literally it contains a bunch of sugar.
American breakfast is really disguised dessert eaten in the morning. While the government recommends no more than 12 teaspoons of sugar a day, the average American consumes 23. And some of these sugary breakfast are coming from foods that are traditionally thought of as healthy. Chobani Blueberry fruit on the bottom greek yogurt contains 15 grams of sugar—that’s more sugar than a 1/2 cup of Breyers vanilla ice cream. However, breakfast doesn’t have to be dessert.
Perhaps because gastroenterology, immunology, toxicology, and the nutrition and agricultural sciences are outside of their competence and responsibility, psychologists and psychiatrists typically fail to appreciate the impact that food can have on their patients’ condition. Here we attempt to help correct this situation by reviewing, in non-technical, plain English, how cereal grains—the world’s most abundant food source—can affect human behavior and mental health.
The article presents the implications for the psychological sciences of the findings that, in all of us, bread (1) makes the gut more permeable and can thus encourage the migration of food particles to sites where they are not expected, prompting the immune system to attack both these particles and brain-relevant substances that resemble them, and (2) releases opioid-like compounds, capable of causing mental derangement if they make it to the brain.
A grain-free diet, although difficult to maintain (especially for those that need it the most), could improve the mental health of many and be a complete cure for others.
During very low carbohydrate intake, the regulated and controlled production of ketone bodies causes a harmless physiological state known as dietary ketosis. Ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain) for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel.
In comparison with glucose, the ketone bodies are actually a very good respiratory fuel. Indeed, there is no clear requirement for dietary carbohydrates for human adults. Interestingly, the effects of ketone body metabolism suggest that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states.
Also, the recent landmark study showed that a very-low-carbohydrate diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men.
Contrary to popular belief, insulin is not needed for glucose uptake and utilization in man.
Finally, both muscle fat and carbohydrate burn in an amino acid flame.
The effects of ketogenic diets are not limited to seizure prevention. Ketogenic diets have shown beneficial effects and are being studied as therapeutic options for an impressively high range of neurological disorders: cognitive impairment, migraine, pain, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, sleep disorders, autism, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, for example, according to a new post:
This effect may be due to a neuroprotective action of ketone bodies. Although the mechanisms are poorly understood, studies in animal and cellular models have shown that ketone bodies can protect neuronal and glial cells against different types of cellular injury and even death. It is believed that this effect may be due to increased energy production and energy storage, since ketone bodies are actually more effective energy sources for neurons. This may arm neurons with an improved ability to resist metabolic insults.
Importantly, ketone bodies can have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidation and inflammation are the main motors of aging and of a number of pathologies, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. By reducing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, ketogenic diets can delay aging and delay or even decrease the development of many of the diseases mentioned above.
Furthermore, ketogenic diets are effective routes to weight loss, as already mentioned; since obesity has been associated with – for example, accelerated cognitive decline and increased risk of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke – weight loss by itself can bring great benefits to brain health.