Evaluation of Chemical and Physical Changes in Different Commercial Oils during Heating

When cooking oils are exposed to heat, oil degradation occurs, and by-products are produced (free fatty acids, secondary products of oxidation, polar compounds). Some by-products of oil degradation have adverse effects on health.

The smoke point of an oil is believed to be correlated with the safety and stability under heat, although technical evidence to support this is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between an oil’s smoke point and other chemical characteristics associated with stability/
safety when heating. Analysis was undertaken in an ISO17025 accredited laboratory.

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and other common cooking oils were heated up to 240 C and exposed to 180 C for 6 hours, with samples assessed at various times, testing smoke point, oxidative stability, free fatty acids, polar compounds, fatty acid profiles and UV coefficients.

EVOO yielded low levels of polar compounds and oxidative by-products, in contrast to the high levels of by-products generated for oils such as canola oil.

EVOO’s fatty acid profile and natural antioxidant content allowed the oil to remain stable when heated (unlike oils with high levels of poly-unsaturated fats (PUFAs) which degraded more readily).

This study reveals that, under the conditions used in the study, smoke point does not predict oil performance when heated.

Oxidative stability and UV coefficients are better predictors when combined with total level of PUFAs. Of all the oils tested, EVOO was shown to be the oil that produced the lowest level of polar compounds after being heated closely followed by coconut oil.

Acta Scientific Nutritional Health: Evaluation of Chemical and Physical Changes in Different Commercial Oils during Heating