Type 2 diabetes is a global health concern, with an increased prevalence and high cost of treatment.
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation and improved vitamin D status on glycemia and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients.
We searched PUBMED/Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and Cochrane Library (until January 2017).
Prospective clinical trials were selected evaluating the impact of vitamin D supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in diabetic patients.
DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:
We used a random-effects model to synthesize quantitative data, followed by a leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. The systematic review registration was CRD42017059555. From a total of 844 entries identified via literature search, 24 controlled trials (1528 individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes) were included. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in HbA1c [mean difference: -0.30%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.45 to -0.15, P < 0.001], FPG [mean difference: -4.9 mg/dL (-0.27 mmol/L); 95% CI: -8.1 to -1.6 (-0.45 to -0.09 mmol/L), P = 0.003], and HOMA-IR (mean difference: -0.66; 95% CI: -1.06 to -0.26, P = 0.001) following vitamin D supplementation and significant increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels [overall increase of 17 ± 2.4 ng/mL (42 ± 6 nmol/L)].
Vitamin D supplementation, a minimum dose of 100 µg/d (4000 IU/d), may significantly reduce serum FPG, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR index, and helps to control glycemic response and improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.