Consumption of high-sugar foods stimulates insulin production, which has been associated with endometrial cancer. Although a relationship between sucrose, high-sugar food consumption, and endometrial cancer risk is biologically plausible, this hypothesis has previously been explored in very few studies.
We used data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 61,226 women aged 40 to 74 years. We examined the association between consumption of total sucrose, high-sugar foods (at baseline 1987–1990 and 1997) and endometrial cancer risk by using Cox proportional hazards models to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) with 95% CI.
During 18.4 years of follow-up, 729 participants were diagnosed with incident endometrial cancer. Total sucrose intake and consumption of sweet buns and cookies was associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. RRs (with 95% CIs) for consuming more than 35 grams of sucrose per day and consuming sweet buns and cookies more than 3 times per week were 1.36 (1.04–1.77) and 1.42 (1.15–1.75) as compared with less than 15 grams of sucrose per day and consuming sweet buns and cookies less than 0.5 times per week, respectively. RRs for consuming more than 15 grams of sucrose per day as compared with 15 grams or less were 1.97 (1.27–3.04) among obese women and 1.56 (1.20–2.04) among women with low fat intake.
These data indicate that sucrose intake and consumption of sweet buns and cookies may be associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer.