Inflammation, Nutritional Ketosis and Metabolic Disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions — increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels — that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes

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Sugar’s Sick Secrets

Walk into any grocery store, grab a few packaged products, and flip to the ingredients. You’ll likely spot added sugars  –  lots of them  –  provided you can discern their dizzying array of names: sucrose, dextrose, barley malt, agave nectar, high-fructose corn syrup, treacle, to list just a few. Why is our food saturated with […]

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Dietary carbohydrates: role of quality and quantity in chronic disease

Carbohydrate is the only macronutrient with no established minimum requirement. Although many populations have thrived with carbohydrate as their main source of energy, others have done so with few if any carbohydrate containing foods throughout much of the year (eg, traditional diets of the Inuit, Laplanders, and some Native Americans). If carbohydrate is not necessary […]

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Two Type 2 diabetes drugs linked to higher risk of heart disease

Are second-line antidiabetic medications (ADMs) associated with cardiovascular events among insured adult patients with type 2 diabetes who are initiating second-line therapy? This cohort study of 132 737 adults with type 2 diabetes found that glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors were associated with similar cardiovascular outcomes. Sulfonylureas […]

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Evidence Behind the Advice About Salt

Low-sodium diets are widely recommended for people who have a variety of ailments, but there’s little proof they help those with heart failure. Despite a number of studies questioning the usefulness of very low-salt diets in the last few years, most major medical organizations continue to recommend them. We would assume that they do so from a strong base of evidence. […]

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NCD Countdown 2030: Worldwide Trends in Non-Communicable Disease Mortality

The third UN High-Level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) on Sept 27, 2018, will review national and global progress towards the prevention and control of NCDs, and provide an opportunity to renew, reinforce, and enhance commitments to reduce their burden. NCD Countdown 2030 is an independent collaboration to inform policies that aim to reduce the […]

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Coffee, Caffeine, and Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review

To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, […]

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Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults

Several guidelines for cardiometabolic risk factor identification and management have been released in recent years, but there are no estimates of current prevalence of metabolic health among adults in the United States. We estimated the proportion of American adults with optimal cardiometabolic health, using different guidelines. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey […]

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Association Between Obesity and Cardiovascular Outcomes

Do mendelian randomization data show that an association exists between obesity and cardiovascular outcomes? In this systematic review and meta-analysis of nearly 1 million participants, obesity was associated with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease but not with stroke. Obesity may increase the risk of subsequent diabetes and may contribute to cardiovascular outcomes and […]

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Translating the Basic Science of Nutritional Ketosis & Keto-Adaptation

An impressive body of scientific evidence over the last 15 years documents long term benefits of carbohydrate-restricted, especially ketogenic, diets. We now understand molecular mechanisms and why they work. Popular books and articles now challenge the advice ‘carbohydrates are good and fats are bad.’ Circa mid-19th century urinary ketones were identified in diabetics sealing their […]

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