Epidemiologic Study of Sleep Disturbances and Psychiatric Disorders

An Opportunity for Prevention? As part of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 7954 respondents were questioned at baseline and 1 year later about sleep complaints and psychiatric symptoms using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Of this community sample, 10.2% and 3.2% noted insomnia and hypersomnia, respectively, at the first interview. Forty […]

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Evidence for Inflammation-Associated Depression

This chapter explores the evidence supporting inflammation-associated depression. Data to date suggest a bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression wherein one process can drive the other. A wealth of animal and clinical studies have demonstrated an association between concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines – specifically interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α – and depressive symptoms. […]

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Neuroinflammation and Psychiatric Illness

Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, […]

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Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment Lacks on Detrimental Effects on Memory, Motor Performance and Anxiety

The Cannabis plant contains more than 100 currently known phytocannabinoids. Regarding the rising consumption of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) in people’s everyday life (e.g., beauty products, food and beverages), the importance of studies on the influence of CBD on healthy humans and rodents is evident. Therefore, the behavioral profile of CBD was investigated with […]

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Diabetes, Adult Neurogenesis and Brain Remodeling

The prevalence of diabetes rapidly increased during the last decades in association with important changes in lifestyle. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are well-known for inducing deleterious effects on physiologic processes, increasing for instance cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, retinopathy and foot ulceration. Interestingly, diabetes also impairs brain morphology and functions such as  decreased neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation and cell […]

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Secrets to Alzheimer’s, ALS and Parkinson’s Disease

Paul Alan Cox is a Harvard Ph.D. who has searched for new medicines from plants used by traditional healers in the Pacific and Southeast Asia. For these efforts TIME magazine named him one of 11 “Heroes of Medicine.” His efforts in preserving island rain forests were recognized with the Goldman Environmental Prize.

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Can Ketones Compensate for Deteriorating Brain Glucose Uptake During Aging? Implications for the Risk and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Brain glucose uptake is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key question is whether cognitive decline can be delayed if this brain energy defect is at least partly corrected or bypassed early in the disease. The principal ketones (also called ketone bodies), β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the brain’s main physiological alternative fuel to glucose. Three […]

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Exercise Delivers Brain Benefits

Aerobic exercise improved executive function in healthy adults who had below-average fitness levels, found a study in Neurology. The 132 sedentary participants, ages 20 to 67 years, were randomly assigned to 6 months of either aerobic exercise (up to 75% of maximum heart rate) or stretching and toning 4 times a week. At the 24-week follow-up, executive function […]

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Reduced Risk of Dementia in Elderly Tied to Higher Cholesterol Levels

Total cholesterol and cognition associations differ in studies at different outcome ages. Some associations of cholesterol with cognition diminish as outcome age increases. In the oldest-old, some relationships reverse from younger elderly samples. Studies seeking protection should focus on good cognition despite high risk. Some associations of high total cholesterol with dementia risk diminish as […]

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Canola Oil Linked to Worsened Memory and Learning Ability

In recent years consumption of canola oil has increased due to lower cost compared with olive oil and the perception that it shares its health benefits. However, no data are available on the effect of canola oil intake on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Herein, we investigated the effect of chronic daily consumption of canola oil […]

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